リチウムイオン電池とは?

  • 1 リチウムイオン二次電池のメカニズム
  • 2 リチウムイオン二次電池ができるまで
これからのスタンダード リチウムイオン電池

リチウムイオン二次電池のメカニズム

リチウムイオン電池の原理なぜ充電と放電を繰り返せるのか

リチウムイオン電池の原理

Lithium-ion batteries typically use a lithium metal oxide in the cathode and a carbon-based material in the anode. The lithium-ion batteries produced by AESC use lithium manganate in the cathode and a carbon-based material in the anode.

When the batteries are charging, electrons move from the cathode to the anode, and lithium ions move from the cathode and into the carbon-based material of the anode. If the cathode and the anode are connected in this state, lithium ions flow from the anode and return to the cathode, and the electrons travel through the connection to the cathode and combine with the lithium ions. When this occurs, an electric current is generated from the cathode to the anode.

リチウムイオン電池の特徴他の電池と比べたリチウムイオン電池の優位性

The basic performance (energy density, power density, etc.) of a battery including the voltage is determined almost entirely by the combination of metals used in the cathode and anode.

電圧が高い Ni-Cd,Ni水素の3直列 = Liイオン

エネルギー密度が高い

Comparing voltages, the lead-acid storage battery used in vehicles has a voltage of 2V with a combination that includes the use of lead dioxide in the cathode and lead in the anode. (Vehicles use 12V batteries that are configured by connecting six of these 2V batteries in a series.) NiCad (Ni-Cd) batteries have a voltage of 1.2V using a combination of nickel hydroxide in the cathode and cadmium hydroxide in the anode, and nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have a voltage of 1.2V using a combination of nickel hydroxide in the cathode and a hydrogen storage alloy in the anode.

In contrast, the voltage of lithium-ion batteries is in a range of 3.2~3.8V, which means that a voltage that is three times higher than that of NiCad batteries and Ni-MH batteries can be obtained.
In addition, the energy density of lithium-ion batteries is also superior with a volume energy density that is roughly 1.5 times that of Ni-MH batteries and a weight energy density that is roughly double. Therefore, if the batteries are of the same capacity, the rechargeable lithium-ion battery can be fabricated with a more compact, lightweight design with just two-thirds the volume of the Ni-MH battery and half the weight.

2 リチウムイオン二次電池ができるまで